Development Update – Recursive Space

One feedback I’ve gotten from a lot of developers I’ve shown the game to, especially with regards to Relativity’s visual style, is that the sky is too empty.

A large part of this has been due to the game’s mechanic. Because you can rotate onto different surfaces, and orientate yourself along any of the 3 main axes, there is no limit in terms of locomotion. In other words, pretty much everything that you can see, you can get to.

For me, in designing the game, I really want to embrace this. I’ve always hated games that prevent you from going somewhere by using invisible walls, or respawning you somewhere else when you step outside of the bounds. For example, in Bioshock Infinite, they’ve created a beautiful world, but you cannot stray from the path the designers intended you to go on. Everytime you try to do that, they’ve placed all thess invisible colliders to stop you. To me, this really irks me as it takes me out of the experience, and makes it not immersive at all.

So in Relativity, I wanted it to be such that, anything the player can see, the player can get to. This means that I can’t really have a skybox showing mountains or other geometry in the distance, because either I would have to create all that geometry, in which case the game becomes too open, or I have to somehow prevent the player from getting there, which breaks the consistency of my logic.

Falling Off
Another design issue I had, once I made it so that the player could go outside and walk around in the exterior of the space, was, “What happens when the player falls off?”

Originally, I just made it so that if the player fell off, the screen would fade to black, and the player would respawn in the last place he was standing at.

You can see that here:



I implemented this mostly because that was how a lot of other games did it.

However, while watching Alexander Bruce’s GDC Talk on the design of Antichamber, one thing really struck me. He talked about how he eliminated death because it made the experience non-immersive. He brings up the example of Portal, which goes to lengths to create an immersive experience, but then you get shot and die, and respawn at a previous checkpoint, which really breaks the immersion.

For me, an important design choice I’ve made has been to eliminate all unnecessary UI. In the game, there are no maps, no inventory, no splash screen, no loading scene. I’ve gone to lengths to create a entirely seamless world, so why am I now having the screen fade to black and have the player respawn? It just didn’t make any sense.

Recursive Space
I thought about this, and realized I could get around having to respawn the player by simply having the world wrap around itself. This way, if the player fell off, they would eventually just fall back on the world itself. This meant also that I would solve the issue of having a blank sky, because I would just have repetitions of the world in the sky, like the way things look when you stand between two mirrors.

The way the actual recursive space would work is that I have a trigger below the space, so that when you fell off the world, you eventually hit the trigger, which just teleports you to being above the world.

This is what that looks like (it’s sped up to make the fall faster for the gif):



At first, I started off by duplicating the entire world in the scene, and placing the clone around the space. I soon realized this wasn’t going to work. The minimum number I would need is one along each direction of the axes (positive and negative), as well as in the corners. In other worlds, a 3x3x3 matrix of clones, or 26 (27 minus the one in the center, which is the actual world itself). Hand-placing these in position wasn’t going to work, so I wrote a script to instantiate the clones and place them for me.


However, there was another problem – there was way too much geometry. I couldn’t just simply duplicate the world. That was very inefficient. I had doors, triggers, buttons, colliders, that didn’t need to be there. And everything was getting multiplied by 27. There was so much geometry, in fact, that Unity kept crashing as a result.

So what I did instead was that I deleted all the interactive elements, deleted all the colliders, and then merged the renderers together, so that all I had were 7 mesh renderers (I would have made it all one giant mesh renderer, but merging meshes that were too large would cause Unity to freeze).

Here’s what the clone world looked like after that process:


The different colors are because I colorcode different geometry when building the world, so I can more easily see when things are aligned, etc.

There was still way too much geometry, and Unity was still crashing way too often. And when Unity wasn’t crashing, it was just running ridiculously slow.

I realized I didn’t actually need all the details, and I also didn’t need any of the glass components, since they pretty much weren’t visible.

So what I did instead, was remodel the entire world, but this time, I would just place giant blocks where the rooms and tunnels are, eliminating anything unnecessary, like interiors.

Here’s what the simplified version of the world looks like:


You can see that a lot of the details are removed. However, from a distance, it is barely noticeable. And by the time the player gets close enough to see anything, I’ve already teleported them to above the original world.

Finally, here are some screenshots of what the sky looks like with the recursive space:

Relativity_Game_Screenshot-2014-04-26_18-33-33 Relativity_Game_Screenshot-2014-04-26_18-35-11 Relativity_Game_Screenshot-2014-04-26_18-35-52

PAX East Indie MINIBOOTH Post-Mortem

I exhibited Relativity in the Indie MEGABOOTH earlier this month at PAX East. I was part of the Indie MINIBOOTH, and it was my first time at PAX.  As I’ve benefited greatly from post-mortems by other studios, such as this one from The Men Who Wear Many Hats, I decided to write up a post about my experience and share what I learned.


I am a one-man developer based in Chicago, currently working on my first game, Relativity, a first-person exploration-puzzle game set in an Escher-esque world. I’ve been working on the game for about 16 months now. Prior to PAX East, I had shown the game briefly during a 2 hour show-and-tell session at IndieCade East in February, and also attended GDC in March. I wasn’t exhibiting at GDC, but I did meet with several developers and designers who I respect a lot, and got them to playtest the game and give me feedback


So, what is the Indie MINIBOOTH? Unlike the other MEGABOOTH spaces, the smallest of which starts at 10×10, the MINIBOOTH is a shared area with kiosk stations showing multiple games. You can choose to show your game for 1, 2, or all 3 days of the convention.

I learned about the Indie MEGABOOTH through twitter and submitted my game on December 2013. I had requested 3 days in the Indie MINIBOOTH as my first choice, and a 10×10 booth as my second choice. The reason why I chose 3 days was that I figured, if I’m going to go all the way to Boston to show the game, I might as well maximize my time at the convention.

On January 2014, I got an email from the organizers saying that my game had been accepted for the 3-day slot of the Indie MINIBOOTH.

Here’s the layout of the MINIBOOTH:

IndieMinibooth layout

The blue part is the actual kiosk itself, and the black outlines show you where the monitors are. The 4 kiosks on the left each hold 3 monitors, while the 2 kioks on the right hold 4 monitors. The 4-monitor kiosks were mostly for games that were showing for only 1 or 2 days, while the others were mostly games exhibiting for the full 3 days.

Here’s the layout of the entire Indie MEGABOOTH area. The Indie MINIBOOTH is the orange area (booth 53).

Indie Megabooth layout

The nice thing about the MINIBOOTH is that you don’t have to worry about or bring anything. The computer, monitor, keyboard, mouse, and headset are all provided for. I arrived in Boston on Wednesday and spent Thursday at the convention center helping out with set up, and making the sure the game is working. Theoretically though, you could just show up on the day you’re exhibiting, with a build of your game on a flash drive, and you’d be good to go (I wouldn’t recommend this though).

Also, you don’t have to worry about stuff like electricity, carpet, or vacuuming. From what I understand, all those things at a convention center are extra, and I think you’ll have to pay for them if doing your own booth.

Finally, if you’re doing something that involves a network, you should definitely bring your own server. One team wanted to have cable internet, and the convention center quoted them something like $1200 for 3 days. They ended up just bringing their own server and setting that up.


Indie MINIBOOTH 3-Day Slot


Flight (Roundtrip Chicago to Boston)




1000 Business Cards


7 Day unlimited MTA Pass


TOTAL: $1,800.57


I stayed with a friend in the west part of Boston, so I didn’t spend any money with regards to accommodation. It took me about an hour to get to and from the Boston Exhibition and Convention Center via public transit (MBTA).

Kiosk Setup

Here’s a picture of the kiosk setup:


If you have an option between keyboard and controller for your game, definitely go with controller, especially if the player is going to be standing. With the stand, you can’t adjust the height of the keyboard, and it makes it really awkward for taller players. I had several people stop playing because their hands were getting cramped up. There are many reasons to stop playing a game. This shouldn’t have to be one of them.

Also, since the height of the keyboard is for standing position, it’s too high for players who are sitting, so this means that the setup won’t be accessible to players in wheelchairs. Again, using a controller would have solved this problem.

If you’re planning on getting a 10×10 booth or something larger, I highly recommend checking out It has tons of tips and advice with regards to building and setting up your booth.

Game Feedback

PAX is a really great venue to get a lot of playtesting done, as well as gauge players’ feedback on your game.  For me, I’m still 1-2 years away from release, so being at PAX East wasn’t so much about promotion as it was about seeing players’ reaction.

There is a lot of value in just watching people play the game, as well as looking at their facial expressions during certain parts. While I wouldn’t rely too much on analytics, some data collection can be helpful. For me, I wanted to get a sense of the average play length, and how long it took people to complete the different puzzles.

In an earlier version of the game, each puzzle was a separate level, and when players finished a puzzle, they would get teleported to the next one. This made it very easy to get the start time and end time of each level, and therefore figure out how long each puzzle took.

However, the current version of the game consists of a seamless world, with puzzles in different rooms that the player can enter and exit at will. This means it’s very difficult to track how much time players spend solving each puzzle, since they might leave and go explore for a while before coming back.

I tried to use the stopwatch on my phone to time players, but this didn’t work out really well. I’d often forget to reset the stopwatch, but also, a lot of times people would stop while playing to talk to you and ask questions. Also, sometimes, other players will take over in the middle of the game, so it’s unclear how to count the time for that.

One option is to screen record the game. The problem is that video files can become pretty large very quickly. Even a half hour video recorded with FRAPS can often be several gigabytes in size.

The guys from Octodad told me that their game would take regular screenshots while people are playing. This is really helpful, especially if you’re trying to get a sense of where players are getting stuck, and it also doesn’t take up as much space on the hard drive.

I would also recommend not adding anything new to your build right before going to PAX. I added an additional puzzle to the game, originally thinking it was a way to fix an issue with another puzzle later on, and pretty much everyone at PAX got stuck there.


Food at the convention center is, not surprisingly, overpriced and crappy. So don’t eat there.


Before PAX started, there was word that someone would go around and take orders for lunch, then go out and buy everyone’s meals. This never actually happened, or at least whoever it was never came by my booth L

In any case, even if it did happen, I personally wouldn’t rely on this. A lot of the volunteers are already overworked as it, and once the convention gets going, it’s pretty much non-stop craziness for 8 hours straight. I also wouldn’t recommend going out for lunch, unless you have someone on your team who can man the booth. On the first day, a few of the other devs in the Indie MINIBOOTH took a cab to Chipotle for lunch, but had a nearly impossible time trying to get back into the convention center due to all the traffic. They had expected lunch to take an hour, and I think it ended up taking two hours.

The way I did it, I would stop by the South Station cafeteria in the morning, and while getting breakfast, I’d just pick up an extra sandwich for lunch. There’s a Dunkin Donuts closer to the convention center, but I wouldn’t recommend going there. As you can expect, being the closest low-price food establishment to the convention center, the line is very very long.


Also, often times, what happens when the day ends, is that people will form some kind of foot train and go to a restaurant to get dinner. Unless you have made reservations beforehand (which most likely you won’t have), I can guarantee you won’t get in anywhere. A day of PAX just ended, there are tens of thousands of hungry people in the area. It’s dinner time. You’re not going to find an empty table for 10+ people anywhere in the vicinity. Either go with a group of 3-4 people, or go to the cafeteria at South Station. Last thing you want to be doing is wandering around Boston with no definite plan and trying to come to a consensus with a large group of people, none of whom are familiar with the area.


PAX sends out a list of about 600 press contacts who are expected to attend the event. If you want to meet with the press, I highly recommend scheduling a meeting in advance. .

How you go about contacting journalists is up to you. I was told that you shouldn’t mass-email people, so I sent out about 15 personalized emails, mostly to journalists who had covered or reviewed similar games. I only heard back from and scheduled meetings with journalists from two sites: Polygon and The Indie Game Magazine.

This was fine with me, as I’m still quite a bit ways away from release, and press exposure isn’t the most important thing for me at the moment. Mostly it was a way for me to get started talking to journalists, and also receive feedback from people who had written about and reviewed similar games.

Some teams sent out a generic press release, to lots of contacts, and just had line saying something like, “if you’re interested in meeting up, get in touch”. Despite what I was told, I think that actually had a better return. One team that did this told me they had 15 meetings scheduled, but they also had 2 days off from showing the game, so were able to meet with the journalists, and they are also much closer to release.

Again, it depends on what stage of development your game is, and what you want to get out of speaking with the press. Generally though, from my own experience, I would say PAX is not the best event for meeting with the press, at least for Indies. I found it much easier at GDC and IndieCade East.

Also, Press Hour is from 9-10 AM on Friday, one hour on the first day of PAX before it starts. However, during this time, most of the journalists go to check out the big booths, because once PAX begins, the lines get ridiculously long.

Finally, sometimes press will give out little badges of approval to put on your station. I got one from, and it totally made my day.



The best part about being in the Indie MEGABOOTH is that you get to meet a ton of cool people and developers.

You’ll meet people not only during set-up and take down, but the Indie MEGABOOTH also organizes several events to socialize and network. These are super cool, and I highly recommend attending them.

On Thursday evening, the night before PAX East opened, there was a party for all the developers in the Indie MEGABOOTH to meet one another. On Saturday evening, there was a mixer between people in the MEGABOOTH and reps from Sony, Microsoft, and Valve.

Both of these events had food and an open bar. The atmosphere is usually pretty informal, but just remember that at the end of the day, it’s still a professional event, so probably best not to get wasted.

Also, when speaking with the platform reps, please be considerate of others and don’t hog the conversation. The ratio of developers to platform reps is something like 100 to 6. We’re all trying to get feedback and make connections with the platforms, so let the other developers have a chance to introduce themselves and ask questions.


Some things you’ll want to bring:

  • Hand sanitizer
  • Cough drops
  • Gum
  • Bottles of water (I recommend at least 4 a day)
  • Snacks
  • Power strips

Also, be sure to thank the volunteers! Both the Indie MEGABOOTH volunteers and the PAX Enforcers. These people work their butts off doing all the boring work to make the event happen. I had some volunteers stand in for me when I went to the bathroom, or fill up my water bottles, and it was super awesome. I really appreciated it

Development Update – Arrows on Boxes

I had a few game developer friends playtest the game last Thursday. The response was quite positive. I implemented a lot of the feedback I got from GDC regarding puzzle pacing, and it’s definitely much better now. By adding a few smaller puzzles that isolate specific concepts in between the larger puzzles, I was able to smooth out the learning curve, while at the same time not dumbing down those larger puzzles, which I really liked.

The new look is also working really well. Making lines vary with distance is still an issue, but it didn’t affect gameplay too much.

One feedback I got was that players have a hard time remembering which direction a box falls towards. This is especially an issue in puzzles where you have to have boxes from three different gravity fields all working together to accomplish your task. In this situations, it’s really important to know which direction a cube is going to fall, since sometimes you’ll want to avoid rotating onto particular surfaces.

A lot of people have suggested adding arrows to the boxes to address this issue. I finally got around to doing it yesterday. It took way longer to implement due to some unexpected issues with generated meshes not being saved into a prefab object in Unity, but it’s all done now.

Here are some screenshots of the new boxes in action. It’s definitely an improvement, especially since even when I’m playing the game, I find the arrows to be quite helpful.






PAX East and New Look!

I am super excited to announce that Relativity will be at PAX East this year, as part of the Indie MEGABOOTH! I’ll be inside the Indie Minibooth section, so definitely swing by to check out the game.


There are some seriously great games in the line up this year, and I couldn’t be more proud to be showcasing my game alongside of those.

Also, it looks like all the work with shaders these last few days is finally paying off. I’m excited to show you guys the new look for Relativity. It’s still very much a work-in-progress, and I’ll be iterating on it for months to come, but I think it’s off to a good start, and headed in the right direction.


Relativity_Game_Screenshot-2014-04-01_01-41-00 Relativity_Game_Screenshot-2014-04-01_01-41-22 Relativity_Game_Screenshot-2014-04-01_01-41-33 Relativity_Game_Screenshot-2014-04-01_02-19-39 Relativity_Game_Screenshot-2014-04-01_03-13-02 Relativity_Game_Screenshot-2014-04-01_03-13-23